CROWDFUNDING FROM A TO Z WHITEPAPER by Laura Anthony Esq


As the expected deadline for the SEC to publish rules and regulations enacting the Crowdfunding Act (Title III of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS Act)) grows nearer, it is a good time for a complete overview of crowdfunding.  New Sections 4(6) and 4A of the Securities Act of 1933 codify the crowdfunding exemption and its various requirements as to Issuers and intermediaries.  The SEC is in the process of drafting the underlying rules and regulations which will implement these new statutory provisions.

A. WHAT IS CROWDFUNDING?

The Crowdfunding Act amends Section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933 (the Securities Act) to create a new exemption to the registration requirements of Section 5 of the Securities Act.  The new exemption allows Issuers to solicit “crowds” to sell up to $1 million in securities as long as no individual investment exceeds certain threshold amounts.

The threshold amount sold to any single investor cannot exceed (a) the greater of $2,000 or 5% of the annual income or net worth of such investor, if the investor’s annual income or net worth is less than $100,000; and (b) 10% of the annual income or net worth of such investor, not to exceed a maximum $100,000, if the investor’s annual income or net worth is more than $100,000.  When determining requirements based on net worth, an individual’s primary residence must be excluded from the calculation.  Clearly there is a conflict in the language determining threshold amounts.  An investor could fall within both categories.  The conflict has been pointed out in numerous letters to the SEC and will presumably be addressed in the rule making.

In addition, Section 302 of the Crowdfunding Act requires that all crowdfunding offerings be conducted through an intermediary that is a broker dealer or funding portal that is registered with the SEC and a member of a registered self-regulatory organization (SRO).  Currently that SRO is Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).

 

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